John B. Gurdon transferred DNA between a tadpole and a frog to clone the first animal. Shinya Yamanaka used Gurdon’s concept to turn ordinary skin into potent stem cells. Both won the Nobel Prize for medicine today.
The Nobel Foundation, which awards winners a 10 million-krona ($1.5 million) prize, may reduce the amount as a decline in global markets lessens its returns, Svenska Dagbladet reported, citing Executive Director Lars Heikensten.
A U.S. and a French scientist won the Nobel Prize in Physics for finding ways to manipulate quantum particles without changing their nature, work that paved the way for a new generation of precision clocks and speedy computers.
Three scientists won the Nobel Prize in medicine for research illuminating how the body’s immune system recognizes infection and marshals an attack against it, an award made three days after one of the men died.
Sweden’s 100-year-old Nobel Foundation, which every October gives 60 million kronor ($9 million) to prize winners in the award’s six categories, has begun hedging against the risk of currency fluctuations.